Marx, of course, never seriously examined how a society could overcome capitalism and establish socialism. He had defined socialism in the most generic terms of distributive justice - ‘to each according to the work performed’ - to be followed by ‘to each according to needs’. He never developed a theory of socialism, or considered how socialism should be planned, or what forms of communal property should exist within in. He never produced a grand theory explaining how the conditions of capitalist production are themselves produced and reproduced. These conditions are the non-market means whereby market relations are maintained: ideology, culture, politics, the state, the family. There is nothing of any importance in Marx on nationalisation, the public sector, or economic planning. Marx was a theorist of capitalism, who sought to discover how the system worked. He was not a theorist of socialism and was contemptuous of those who wrote utopian blueprints. He was convinced that capitalism would not last for ever, but he never explained how it would be abolished or how it would end. Marx had no doubt that capitalism was the most dynamic system ever to appear on the surface of the earth. It was an unsettled, innovating and expansive system, which would revolutionise the world and draw it together in a tightly knit mesh: the world market. He accurately predicted that the centralisation of capital would develop ‘on an ever-extending scale’, entangling ‘all people in the net of the world-market’, giving capitalism ‘an international character’. As for the political shell which would contain this worldwide formation, Marx and his followers remained silent.